Basic Formal Ontology

The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) (Version 1.1) is a small, upper level ontology that is designed for use in supporting information retrieval, analysis and integration in scientific and other domains. BFO is a genuine upper integration in scientific and other domains. The BFO project was initiated in 2002 under the auspices of the project Forms of Life sponsored by the Volkswagen Foundation.

For further information please click here.


  • Jansen L. and Smith B. eds. (2008). Biomedizinische Ontologie. Zürich: vdf Hochschulverlag.
  • Munn K. and Smith B. (2009). Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.
  • Johansson I. and Lynoe N. (2009). Medicine & Philosophy: a Twenty-First Century Introduction. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.