Writing Tips & Resources

Additional Writing Resources

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Quick Citation Guides

Citation Overview

Why Use Citations?

All good research uses some form of citation to:

  • Demonstrate proper research 
  • Allow others to find cited sources
  • Avoid plagiarism and give credit where credit is due

What are Citations?

Citations can be found in the body of a text to identify where ideas, quotations, summaries, figures, tables, etc. originate. These citations are for short reference and can be referred to as in-text citations. Some wrttien works contain footnotes or endnotes, which are indicated in the body of a text with a small number. Depending on the style and format, a written work may only use in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes or it could use both simeltaniously.

Citations are also listed, or collected, in full at the end of a text. This is referred to as a BibliographyReference List, or Works Cited.

Most citation styles are often comprised of standard elements that contatin the necessary information to locate and identify the source(s) used. These standard elements are:

  • Title 
  • Author(s) (full name)
  • Date of publication
  • Volume/edition/issue number
  • Page number(s) (usually for in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes, periodicals, or chapters)

These elements may vary depending on the source type or citation style.


What to Use

There are many different citation styles and formats we have included three common styles below. Selecting the right one can depend on the discipline, department, publication, or the instructor/professor. While the quick guides below provide general guidelines to help select a style, make sure you know what is expected and/or appropriate for your writing.   

MLA (Modern Language Association)

MLA citation style and format is commonly used by disciplines within the humanities. The quick guide below follows the 8th edition of the MLA manual and includes limited examples of in-text citations and a Works Cited example. For information see: MLA Handbook (8th ed.), or click here to visit their website.

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA citation style and format is commonly used by disciplines within the social sciences. The quick guide below follows the 7th edition of the APA manual and includes limited examples of in-text citations and a Reference List example. For more information see: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), or click here to visit their website.

Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian Style)

Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian Style are two (slightly) different citation systems. The Notes and Bibliography system is commonly used by disciplines within the arts, historical studies, and the humanities. The Author-Date system is commonly used in the social sciences, and is often recommend in the natural sciences. The quick guide below follows the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and includes limited examples of footnotes and a Bibliography example for the Notes and Biblography system. For more information see: The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), or click here to visit their website.     


When to Use

Since citations are used to show research, give appropraite credit to scholars/authors, and allow others to access the information used, the following must be cited:

  • Factual information that is not common knowledge 
  • Figures
  • Another person's ideas, words, compositons, or theories
  • Methodologies and theories
  • Creative or artistic works (including visual art and media, lyrics, scores, sound effects etc.)
MLA In-text Citations

Modern Language Association (MLA)

In-text Citation Rules

MLA style uses parenthetical citations to cite summarized, paraphrased, or quoted sources within a text. This means that necessary source information is contained with parenthesis, and usually appears at the end of a sentence just before the period (full-stop). Parenthetical citations can also appear at different points in the sentence depending how a source is incorporated into the grammatical construction. It is important to remember that any source information included in the text must also appear on the Works Cited page. 

In-text citations using MLA should includes the author's last name and the page number(s) of where the cited information is located. The author's name can appear in the sentence or in the parenthetical citation, while the page number(s) should always appear within the parentheses. 


 


­In-text Citation Basic Example # 1:

Ta-Neheisi Coates compares the American Dream to a soft blanket ushering in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (11).

Close Examination:

  • Ta-Neheisi Coates ➡  Author's name should appear in full at first mention, after first mention, the author can be referred to by their last name.  
  • "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies"   Author's exact wording is surrounded by quotation marks " ". In English, " " always appear at the top of words. The quotation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of the sentence. 
  • (11). ➡  The page number the quote appears on is contained within parentheses, and the period/full-stop is outside of the parentheses. 

In-text Citation Basic Example #2:

 The American Dream is compares to a soft blanket that ushers ­­­­­in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (Coates 11).

Close Examination:

  • (Coates 11). ➡  The author's last name and page number appear at the end of the sentence when the author's name is not used to introduce the quotation.

In-text Citation Basic Example #3:

Coates compares the American Dream to a warm bed made of Black bodies for the comfort of a predominatly white society (11).

Close Examination: 

  • This example does not require quotation marks as it is paraphrasing an idea in the text.
  • Coates ➡  The author is referred to by their last name, which indicates their full name has been previously mentioned.

 

 

MLA Works Cited

Modern Language Association (MLA)

Works Cited Page

All written works adhearing to MLA style must have a Works Cited page at the end of the text and list all sources cited. Below is a list of basic rules to follow when drafting a Works Cited page:

  • Appears on a separate page at the end of the text
  • The page should be titled: Works Cited  (centered and without italics)
  • Margins, headers, and page number should remain the same or correspond to the rest of the formatted text
  • Entries should be listed alphabetically
  • Use hanging indent. Indent the second and following lines of citation by 0.5 inches (1,27 cm)
  • Author names appear with the last name first followed by a comma (,) then the first name. If the author list their middle name or middle initial it appears last (e.g. Morrison, Toni / Levy, David M.)

Works Cited Formats

Below is a general and limited collection of how specific sources should appear on the Works Cited page. For more specific information see: MLA Handbook (8th ed.). It is important to pay attention to detail and follow the examples precisely to correctly cite sources.


Books

  • One author:
    •  Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
      • Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. Random House, 2015.
  • More than one author:
    • Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
    • Note: The authors follwoing the first listed author should be listed by First Name Last. If a publication has more than two authors list the first author followed by the phrase et al. meaning and others. 
  • Unknown author:
    • Title of Book. Edited (and/or Translated) by First last name, Publisher, Publication Year.
  • An edited book:
    • Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
  • Monograph / essay collection:
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Collection. Publication, Year.
    • Note: If the collection has an editor, name the editor first followed by "ed.".
  • Essay, story or poem in collection or anthology:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Essay or Selected Work." Title of Collection, edited by First Name Last Name, Publication, Year, Page Numbers/Range.
    • Note: The citation must include the first and last page of the original source appears on seperated by a hyphen "-" without spaces (e.g. 66-80).

Periodicals

Periodicals refers to scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers. 

  • Newspaper article:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Newspaper Title, Day Month Year, Page Number(s).
      • Winfrey, Lee. "Courtroom Network Banks on Real-life Drama," Pittsburgh Press, 6 July 1991, C10.
    • Note: If there is more than one edition it should be noted after the title of the newspaper. Include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper if a publication is not well-known or city is not named in title. 
  • Review article:
    • Last Name, First Name (of reviewing author). "Title of Review." Reveiw of Title of Subject Being Reviewed,  Author/Director/Artists of original work. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Page Number. 
    • Note: If the review itself does not have a title begin with Review of Title.
  • Editorial & Letter to the Editor:
    • Last Name, First Name (if listed). Letter (or) Editorial. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Page Number(s).
  • Article in a scholarly journal:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journals, Volume, Issue, Year, Page Numbers.
      • Hollinger, David A. "After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Protestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity." The Journal of American History, vol. 98. no. 1, 2011, pp. 22-48. 
    • Note: Volume is abbreviated as: vol. Number is abbreviated as: no. Page numbers is abbreviated as pp. As of the 8th edition, it is advised to use the DOI (if avaliable) over the URL.

Online Sources

Note: Do not include hyperlinks in Works Cited unless otherwise specified. 

  • E-Book:
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher. E-book, Publisher, Year.
    • Note:  If the e-books is formatted for a specific device this must be indicated in the same way as an edition number, which may mean that "E-book" would be replaced with the specific device or application followed by "ed.".
  • Article on an online database:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, volume number, issue number, page number(s). Title of Online Database, DOI/URL. Accessed Day Month Year. 
      • Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.ord/stabel/41403188. Accessed 01 Oct. 2018.
  • Article on Website:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Online Periodical, Day Month Year, URL.
      • Fister, Barbara. " The Librarian War Against QAnon." The Atlantic, 18 Feb. 2021, theatlantic.com/education/archive/2021/02/how-librarians-can-fight-qanon/618047/.
  • Entire Web Site:
    • Last Name, First Name (if available). Name of Site. Name of Originization/Publisher/Institution affiliated with Main Site (if available), Date of Creation (if available), DOI/URL. Date of Access (if applicable).
  • Page on a Web Site:
    • Last Name, First Name (if known). "Title of Page." Title of Web Site, URL. Accessed Day Month Year. 
  • Tweet: 
    • Twitter handle. "Entire tweet." Twitter. Day Month Year, Time, URL.
      • @ang_saar. "Teachers' Day 2020 has kicked off! So far so good. Welcome to our virtual event!" Twitter. 29 September 2020, 16:11, twitter.com/ang_saar/status/1310945301159718914.
    • Note: Time of posting should be from the reader's time zone. Date accessed maybe necessary depending on alterations or deletions. 
  • Online videos, movies, and television:
    • Last Name, First Name (of creator or author). "Title of Video." YouTube, uploaded by Name, Day Month, Year, URL.
      • Simpson, Cam et al. "The Big Brexit Short." YouTube, uploaded by Bloomberg Quicktake, 15 Mar. 2019, youtube.com/watch?v=Ht40yrt3VrY.
    • Note: Author or creator name could be different than uploader. If this is the case, cite the name before uploader. If uploader and author are the same begin with video title.

Movies, Television Shows, & Other Media

  • Movie/Film:
    • Title of Movie/Film. Directed by Name, Distributor. Year or Release.
      • Moonlight. Directed by Barry Jenkins, A24. 2016.
    • Note: If it is necessary to highlight specific performers, directors, or creators, list their names before the title followed by proper the individual's title. 
  • Television episodes:
    • "Episode Title." Television Show Title, written by Name, directed by Name, Distributor Title, Year of Distribution. 
  • Television Series:
    • Name of Creator(s), creator(s). Title of Show. Production Studio/Distributor, Year of Release.
      • Greg Daniels, creator. The Office. Deedle-Dee Productions and NBCUniversal Television Distribution, 2005.
  • Podcasts:
    • "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast from Producer/Orginization, Day Month Year of Release, URL.
APA In-text Citations

American Psychological Association (APA)

In-text Citation Rules

APA style and format follows the author-date system, which means the short in-text citations referrer to the name and date listed in the Reference List. The necessary information appears in the body of the text, contained in parentheses, and includes the author's name, date of publication, and page number(s) when needed. Depending on how a citation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of a sentence will dictate the placement of necessary citation information. Direct quotes can be introduced by stating author name(s), followed by the date of publication, then the quote itself, and the page number(s). If the author name(s) is not used to introduce the source, the citation must include this information after the quote or at the end sentence in parentheses. 

Texts that briefly summarize an idea from another author do not require a page number, but should include the author(s) name. Page number(s) should be included in the citation when texts are directly quoting or paraphrasing another author. It  is important to remember that any source information included in the text must also appear in the Reference List. 


 


In-text Citation Basic Example #1:

Ta-Neheisi Coates (2015) compares the American Dream to a soft blanket ushing in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Deam rests on our back, the bedding made from our bodies" (p. 11).

Close Examination:

  • Ta-Neheisi Coates (2015) ➡ Author's name should appear in full at first mention, after first mention, the author can be referred to by their last name. The year of publication immediately follows the author name and is contained within parentheses.
  • "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies"   Author's exact wording is surrounded by quotation marks " ". In English, " " always appear at the top of words. The quotation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of the sentence. 
  • (p. 11).  ➡ The page number is indicated with a lower case "p" and a period/full-stop followed by the number. This information is contained within parentheses and the period/full-stop is placed outside of the parentheses. 

 

In-text Citation Basic Example #2:

Coates (2015) begins with the premis "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (p. 11); the warm bed of the American Dream has been fashioned for white America. 

Close Examination:

  • Coates (2015) ➡ The author is referred to by their last name, which indicates their full name has been previously mentioned and the is followed by the year of publication. 
  • (p. 11) ➡ The page number directly follows the quotation, and since it is not the end of a sentence, the page number does not follow a perdiod/full-stop.

In-text Citation Basic Example #3:

He compares the American Dream to a soft blanket that unshers in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (Coates, 2015, p. 11), and unpacks this premies that Black bodies are pereicved as inferior in the rest of his book. 

Close Examination:

  • (Coates, 2015, p. 11) ➡  The author's name, as well as the year of publication, was not mentioned in the sentence and is included in the citation. In this format, the author's name is followed by a comma, then the year, which is followed by another comma, and the page number. 

 

In-text Citation Basic Example #4:

Coates (2015) compares the American Dream to a warm bed made of Black bodies from the comfort of a predominatly white society (p. 11).

APA Reference List

American Psychological Association (APA)

Reference List

All written works adhearing to APA style must have a Reference List at the end of the text and should list all sources cited. Below is a list of basic rules to follow when drafting a Reference List:

  • Appears on a seperate page at the end of the text
  • The page should be titled: Reference List (centered and without italics)
  • Margins, header, and page number should remain the same or correspond to the rest of the formatted text
  • Entries should be listed alphabetically
  • Indent the second and following lines of citations by 0.5 inches (1,27 cm)
  • Author names appear with the last name first followed by a comma (,) then the first initial of the name. If the author lists their middle name of middle initial it appears last (e.g. Morrison, T. / Levy, D. M.)
  • If the list contains multiple works authored by the same person, list the articles in chronolological order within the larger alphabetical order
  • When referring to source titles (articles, books, chapters, etc.) only capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle, as well as any proper nouns

Works Cited Formats

Below is a general and limited collection of how specific sources should appear on the Reference List. For more specific information see: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). It is important to pay attention to detail and follw the examples precisely to correctyl cite sources.


Books

  • One author:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name. 
      • Coates, T. (2015). Between the world and me. Random House. 
  • More than one author:
    • Last Name, X. Y., Last Name, X. Y., & Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name.
    • Note: As of the 7th edition, it is advised to list the last name and first/middle initials for all authors (up to 20), and seperat the authors with a comma. Before listing the last author's name use an ampersand (&) to seperate it from the previous.
  • Edited book, no author:
    • Editor Last Name, X. Y. (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name.  
  • Edited book with an author(s):
    • Author Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for fist word of subtitle. (X. Editor Last Name, Ed.). Publisher Name. 
    • Note: The editor(s) should be listed by the initial of their first name followed by their full last name and "Ed." to indicate they are the editor(s).
  • Article or chapter in an edited book:
    • Author Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In X. Y. Last Name of Editor & X. Y. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter for first work of subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI (if available)
    • Note: The citation must include the first and last page of the original source appears on seperated by a hyphen "-" without spaces (e.g. 66-80).

Periodicals

Periodicals refers to scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers.

  • Newspaper article: 
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year and month of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page Number.
      • Winfrey, L. (1991, July). Courtroom network banks on real-life drama. Pittsburgh Press, C10.
  • Review article:
    • Last Name of Reviewer, X. Y. (Year of review publication). Title of review [Review of the book/article Title of book/article: Capital letter for first word of subtitle,  by X. Y. Author(s) Name of reviewed text]. Title of publication of review, Page Number(s). 
  • Article in scholarly journal:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication), Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume numner(issue number), pages. 
      • Note: As of the 7th edition, it is advised to list a DOI if available, even if using a print source. The DOI should appear after the listed page numbers (e.g. 44-60. doi.org/xxxxx/yyyy.). 

 

Online Sources

Note: Do Not include hyperlinks in the Refrence List unless otherwise specifed.

  • Ebook:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. (ed.). Publication. DOI/URL 
      • Jackson, L. M. (2019) The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000
    • Note: Not not include publisher location. If there is a DOI include it in the reference, do include a URL if there is no DOI avaliable.
  • News article online:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL
      • Fister, B. (2021, February 18). The librarian war against QAnon. The Atlantic. theatlantic.com/education/archive/2021/02/how-librarians-can-fight-qanon/618047/ 
  • Page on a web site
    • Orginization or Group Name (Year, Month Date/Yeas of publication). Title of page. Site name. URL
      • Anglistik, Amerikanistik, und Anglophone Kulturen (n.d.). The writing center. Universität des Saarland. uni-saarland.de/fachrichtung/anglistik/writing-center.html
    • Note: List author(s) name if one is avaliable. If there is not clear orginization or group that authored the site, list the title of the page followed by the date. Omit the site name if it is the same as the title of the page. If the day and month are not shown, list the year. If there is not date shown list "(n.d.).". As of the 7th edition, it is no longer advised to add "Retrieved from" before the URL or DOI in some cases.
  • Tweet:
    • Last Name, X. Y. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post[Tweet]. Site Name. URL
      • Anglistik (Uni Saar) [@ang_sar]. (2020, September 29). Teachers' Day 2020 has kicked off! So far so good. Welcome to our virtual event![Tweet]. Twitter. twitter.com/ang_saar/status/1310945301159718914
    • Note: Indicate if Tweet contains additional media or links in brackets after the content description. Include or replicate emojis if possible.
  • Online videos, movies, and television:
    • Last Name, X. Y. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Platform/Service. URL
    • Note: Uploader is considered the author. Omit [Username] if the author name is the same.

Movies Television Shows, & Other Media

  • Movie/Film:
    • Director Last Name, X. Y. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in original langauge [Title translated] [Film]. Production company.
      • Barry, J. (Director). (2016). Moonlight [Film]. A24.
  • Television episode:
    • Writer Last Name, X. Y. (Writer), & Director Last Name, X. Y. (Director). (Original air date). TItle of episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In X. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s).
      • Lieberstein, P. (Writer), & Blitz, J. (Director). (2009, February 1). Stress relief (Seasone 5, Episode 14/15) [TV series episode]. In B. Silverman, G. Daniels, R. Gervais, S. Merchant, H. Klein, K. Kwapis, P. Lieberstein, B. Novak, B. Forrester, & D. Sterling (Executive Producers), The office. Deedle-Dee Productions and NBC Universal Television Distribution.
  • Television series:
    • Executive Producer(s), X. Y. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s).
  • Podcast:
    • Executive Producer, X. Y. (Executive Producer). (Range of publication). TItle of postcast [Audio poscast]. Production company. URL
Chicago Footnotes

Under construction. 

Chicago Bibliography

Under construction.

Email Etiquette