Writing Tips & Resources

Quick Citation Guides

Citation Overview

Why Use Citations?

All good research uses some form of citation to:

  • Demonstrate proper research 
  • Allow others to find cited sources
  • Avoid plagiarism and give credit where credit is due

What are Citations?

Citations can be found in the body of a text to identify where ideas, quotations, summaries, figures, tables, etc. originate. These citations are for short reference and can be referred to as in-text citations. Some written works contain footnotes or endnotes, which are indicated in the body of a text with a small number. Depending on the style and format, a written work may only use in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes or it could use both simultaneously.

Citations are also listed, or collected, in full at the end of a text. This is referred to as a BibliographyReference List, or Works Cited.

Most citation styles are often comprised of standard elements that contain the necessary information to locate and identify the source(s) used. These standard elements are:

  • Title 
  • Author(s) (full name)
  • Date of publication
  • Volume/edition/issue number
  • Page number(s) (usually for in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes, periodicals, or chapters)

These elements may vary depending on the source type or citation style.


What to Use

There are many different citation styles and formats we have included three common styles below. Selecting the right one can depend on the discipline, department, publication, or the instructor/professor. While the quick guides below provide general guidelines to help select a style, make sure you know what is expected and/or appropriate for your writing.   

Literature and cultural studies students in the Fachrichtung Anglistik, Amerikanistik should use MLA for their term papers.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

MLA citation style and format is commonly used by disciplines within the humanities. The quick guide below follows the 9th edition of the MLA manual and includes limited examples of in-text citations and a Works Cited example. For more information see: MLA Handbook (9th ed.), or click here to visit their website.

APA (American Psychological Association)

APA citation style and format is commonly used by disciplines within the social sciences. The quick guide below follows the 7th edition of the APA manual and includes limited examples of in-text citations and a Reference List example. For more information see: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), or click here to visit their website.

Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian Style)

Chicago Manual of Style and Turabian Style are two (slightly) different citation systems. The Notes and Bibliography system is commonly used by disciplines within the arts, historical studies, and the humanities. The Author-Date system is commonly used in the social sciences, and is often recommend in the natural sciences. The quick guide below follows the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and includes limited examples of footnotes and a Bibliography example for the Notes and Bibliography system. For more information see: The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), or click here to visit their website.     


When to Use

Since citations are used to show research, give appropriate credit to scholars/authors, and allow others to access the information used, the following must be cited:

  • Factual information that is not common knowledge 
  • Figures
  • Another person's ideas, words, compositions, or theories
  • Methodologies and theories
  • Creative or artistic works (including visual art and media, lyrics, scores, sound effects etc.)
MLA Inclusive Language

Principles of Inclusive Language: 

Principles of inclusive language are all about choosing inclusive language regarding race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, ability, age, economic, and social status. It is always important to consider the particular context. The information below has been shorten and taken from the 9th edition of MLA. For the whole chapter consult Chapter 3, "Principles of Inclusive Langague"  


1. Identity matters

  • Think about using gender neutral language
    • humankind instead of mankind
  • For specific individuals, specific forms may be used
    • Latina, for one female person, but use Latinx for general reference or more than one person

2. Pronouns

  • When sex or gender is not relevant, use they, them or theirs
    • instead of referring to a student as he or she use they (they can also be used as a personal pronoun for those identifying as non-binary)
  • Pay attention to pronouns in English when sex or gender is unknown 
    • always refer to them as they/them, not he/him, (Using he/him means that the person must be male)
  • Consider avoiding 1st person plural (we/our) as it might not be clear who is included or excluded
    • avoiding we/our is especially important in academic writing

3. Watch out for capitalization and styling

  • Dictionaries provide capitalized nouns only if they derive from proper nouns
    • retiree, resident or Chilean  -> when both options are okay choose one and stick with it
  • When talking about a person or their identity do not use quotation marks or italics as this might be disrespectful or offensive

4. Respect your subject's identity

  • Think about when it is best to use people-first language or identity-first language
    • a person with autism or an autistic person -> both can be valid depending on the context, but always reflect on your choices

5. Language precision

  • Some terms applied to populations may require more specificity
    • when talking about religion or people living in certain areas: instead of saying Muslims specify this and say Shia Muslim community in Yemen

6. Avoid negative judgements

  • When talking about health conditions, disabilities or experiences avoid terms like “suffers from, afflicted with, prisoner of, victim of” as those terms might evoke emotions that are not accurate and be offensive

7. When in doubt look it up (or ask)

  • Note that connotations of words change over time
  • If a work features offensive terms, indicate that and do not use them in your personal writing. When referring to those terms, find synonyms that are not questionable.
MLA In-text Citations

Modern Language Association (MLA)

 

In-text Citation Rules

MLA style uses parenthetical citations to cite summarized, paraphrased, or quoted sources within a text. This means that necessary source information is contained with parenthesis, and usually appears at the end of a sentence just before the period (full-stop). Parenthetical citations can also appear at different points in the sentence depending on how a source is incorporated into the grammatical construction. It is important to remember that any source information included in the text must also appear on the Works Cited page. 

In-text citations using MLA should includes the author's initial of their first name, followed by their full last name, and the page number(s) of where the cited information is located. The author's name can appear in the sentence or in the parenthetical citation, while the page number(s) should always appear within the parentheses. 


 


­In-text Citation Basic Example # 1:

Ta-Neheisi Coates compares the American Dream to a soft blanket ushering in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (11).

Close Examination:

  • Ta-Neheisi Coates ➡  Author's name should appear in full at first mention, after first mention, the author can be referred to by their last name.  
  • "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies"   Author's exact wording is surrounded by quotation marks " ". In English, " " always appear at the top of words. The quotation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of the sentence. 
  • (11). ➡  The page number the quote appears on is contained within parentheses, and the period/full-stop is outside of the parentheses. 

In-text Citation Basic Example #2:

 The American Dream is compared to a soft blanket that ushers ­­­­­in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (T. Coates 11).

Close Examination:

  • (Coates 11). ➡  The author's first name initial, last name and page number appear at the end of the sentence when the author's name is not used to introduce the quotation.

In-text Citation Basic Example #3:

Coates compares the American Dream to a warm bed made of Black bodies for the comfort of a predominantly white society (11).

Close Examination: 

  • This example does not require quotation marks as it is paraphrasing an idea in the text.
  • Coates ➡  The author is referred to by their last name, which indicates their full name has been previously mentioned.

In-text Citation Basic Example #4:

"We have a story about the Spear-Danes, from the old days when they were big and their kings showed their strength" (Beowulf)

Close Examination:

  • Beowulf ➡ When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead. The title here would be "Beowulf by All: Community Translation and Workbook".
  • Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened by excluding articles. If the title cannot be easily shortened it should be cut by the first clause.
  • If you have a translated work, be sure to note this (e.g., "translated by") after the title.
  • If your text is focused on the translator or that it is a translation, cite the translator(s) as if they are the author.
MLA Works Cited

Modern Language Association (MLA)

 

Works Cited Page

All written works adhering to MLA style must have a Works Cited page at the end of the text and list all sources cited. Below is a list of basic rules to follow when drafting a Works Cited page:

  • Appears on a separate page at the end of the text
  • The page should be titled: Works Cited  (centered and without italics)
  • Margins, headers, and page number should remain the same or correspond to the rest of the formatted text
  • Entries should be listed alphabetically
  • Use hanging indents. Indent the second and following lines of citation by 0.5 inches (1,27 cm)
  • Author names appear with the last name first followed by a comma (,) then the first name. If the author lists their middle name or middle initial it appears last (e.g. Morrison, Toni / Levy, David M.)

Works Cited Formats

Below is a general and limited collection of how specific sources should appear on the Works Cited page. For more specific information see: MLA Handbook (9th ed.). It is important to pay attention to detail and follow the examples precisely to correctly cite sources.


Books

  • One author:
    •  Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
      • Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. Random House, 2015.
    • Note: When there is a quotation in the title that is already in quotation marks put "double" quotation marks around the whole title and 'single' quotation marks around the quotes within the title.
    • Note: pseudonyms should be put in square brackets, e.g. Mary Anne Evans [George Eliot].
  • More than one author:
    • Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
    • Note: The authors following the first listed author should be listed by First Name Last. If a publication has more than two authors list the first author followed by the phrase et al. meaning and others. 
  • Unknown author:
    • Title of Book. Edited (and/or Translated) by First last name, Publisher, Publication Year.
  • An edited book:
    • Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
  • Monograph / essay collection:
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Collection. Publication, Year.
    • Note: If the collection has an editor, name the editor first followed by "ed.".
  • Essay, story or poem in collection or anthology:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Essay or Selected Work." Title of Collection, edited by First Name Last Name, Publication, Year, Page Numbers/Range.
    • Note: The citation must include the first and last page of the original source appears separated by a hyphen "-" without spaces (e.g. 66-80).

Periodicals

Periodicals refers to scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers. 

  • Newspaper article:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Newspaper Title, Day Month Year, Page Number(s).
      • Winfrey, Lee. "Courtroom Network Banks on Real-life Drama," Pittsburgh Press, 6 July 1991, C10.
    • Note: If there is more than one edition it should be noted after the title of the newspaper. Include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper if a publication is not well-known or city is not named in title. 
    • Note: When the publication date includes a season, it should appear in lowercase (ex. spring)
  • Review article:
    • Last Name, First Name (of reviewing author). "Title of Review." Review of Title of Subject Being Reviewed,  Author/Director/Artists of original work. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Page Number. 
    • Note: If the review itself does not have a title begin with Review of Title.
  • Editorial & Letter to the Editor:
    • Last Name, First Name (if listed). Letter (or) Editorial. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Page Number(s).
  • Article in a scholarly journal:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journals, Volume, Issue, Year, Page Numbers.
      • Hollinger, David A. "After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Protestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity." The Journal of American History, vol. 98. no. 1, 2011, pp. 22-48. 
    • Note: Volume is abbreviated as: vol. Issue number is abbreviated as: no. Page numbers are abbreviated as pp. It is advised to use the DOI (if available) over the URL.

Online Sources

Note: Do not include hyperlinks in Works Cited unless otherwise specified. 

  • E-Book:
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher. E-book, Publisher, Year.
    • Note:  If the e-book is formatted for a specific device this must be indicated in the same way as an edition number, which may mean that "E-book" would be replaced with the specific device or application followed by "ed.".
  • Article on an online database:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, volume number, issue number, page number(s). Title of Online Database, DOI/URL. Accessed Day Month Year. 
      • Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.ord/stabel/41403188. Accessed 01 Oct. 2018.
    • Note: If the article has a DOI number, write the DOI number as a web adress: https://doi.org/number appears here.
  • Article on Website:
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Online Periodical, Day Month Year, URL.
      • Fister, Barbara. " The Librarian War Against QAnon." The Atlantic, 18 Feb. 2021, theatlantic.com/education/archive/2021/02/how-librarians-can-fight-qanon/618047/.
  • Entire Web Site:
    • Last Name, First Name (if available). Name of Site. Name of Organization/Publisher/Institution affiliated with Main Site (if available), Date of Creation (if available), DOI/URL. Date of Access (if applicable).
  • Page on a Web Site:
    • Last Name, First Name (if known). "Title of Page." Title of Web Site, URL. Accessed Day Month Year. 
  • Tweet: 
    • Twitter handle. "Entire tweet." Twitter. Day Month Year, Time, URL.
      • @ang_saar. "Teachers' Day 2020 has kicked off! So far so good. Welcome to our virtual event!" Twitter. 29 September 2020, 16:11, twitter.com/ang_saar/status/1310945301159718914.
    • Note: Time of posting should be from the reader's time zone. Date accessed may be necessary depending on alterations or deletions. 
  • Online videos, movies, and television:
    • Last Name, First Name (of creator or author). "Title of Video." YouTube, uploaded by Name, Day Month, Year, URL.
      • Simpson, Cam et al. "The Big Brexit Short." YouTube, uploaded by Bloomberg Quicktake, 15 Mar. 2019, youtube.com/watch?v=Ht40yrt3VrY.
    • Note: Author or creator name could be different than uploader. If this is the case, cite the name before uploader. If the uploader and author are the same, begin with video title.
  • Social media content, Instagram:
    • Last Name, First Name [@ name of the account]. "subtitle/ caption" Instagram, Day Month Year, URL.
    • Note: The username can be included if the user`s name is different from their username.

Movies, Television Shows, & Other Media

  • Movie/Film:
    • Title of Movie/Film. Directed by Name, Distributor. Year or Release.
      • Moonlight. Directed by Barry Jenkins, A24. 2016.
    • Note: If it is necessary to highlight specific performers, directors, or creators, list their names before the title followed by proper the proper individual's title. 
  • Television episodes:
    • "Episode Title." Television Show Title, written by Name, directed by Name, Distributor Title, Year of Distribution. 
  • Television Series:
    • Name of Creator(s), creator(s). Title of Show. Production Studio/Distributor, Year of Release.
      • Greg Daniels, creator. The Office. Deedle-Dee Productions and NBCUniversal Television Distribution, 2005.
  • Podcasts:
    • "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast from Producer/Organization, Day Month Year of Release, URL.
APA In-text Citations

American Psychological Association (APA)

In-text Citation Rules

APA style and format follows the author-date system, which means the short in-text citations referrer to the name and date listed in the Reference List. The necessary information appears in the body of the text, contained in parentheses, and includes the author's name, date of publication, and page number(s) when needed. Depending on how a citation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of a sentence will dictate the placement of necessary citation information. Direct quotes can be introduced by stating author name(s), followed by the date of publication, then the quote itself, and the page number(s). If the author name(s) is not used to introduce the source, the citation must include this information after the quote or at the end sentence in parentheses. 

Texts that briefly summarize an idea from another author do not require a page number, but should include the author(s) name. Page number(s) should be included in the citation when texts are directly quoting or paraphrasing another author. It  is important to remember that any source information included in the text must also appear in the Reference List. 


 


In-text Citation Basic Example #1:

Ta-Neheisi Coates (2015) compares the American Dream to a soft blanket ushering in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our back, the bedding made from our bodies" (p. 11).

Close Examination:

  • Ta-Neheisi Coates (2015) ➡ Author's name should appear in full at first mention, after first mention, the author can be referred to by their last name. The year of publication immediately follows the author name and is contained within parentheses.
  • "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies"   Author's exact wording is surrounded by quotation marks " ". In English, " " always appear at the top of words. The quotation is incorporated into the grammatical construction of the sentence. 
  • (p. 11).  ➡ The page number is indicated with a lower case "p" and a period/full-stop followed by the number. This information is contained within parentheses and the period/full-stop is placed outside of the parentheses. 

 

In-text Citation Basic Example #2:

Coates (2015) begins with the premise "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (p. 11); the warm bed of the American Dream has been fashioned for white America. 

Close Examination:

  • Coates (2015) ➡ The author is referred to by their last name, which indicates their full name has been previously mentioned and the is followed by the year of publication. 
  • (p. 11) ➡ The page number directly follows the quotation, and since it is not the end of a sentence, the page number does not follow a period/full-stop.

 

In-text Citation Basic Example #3:

He compares the American Dream to a soft blanket that ushers in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" (Coates, 2015, p. 11), and unpacks this premise that Black bodies are perceived as inferior in the rest of his book. 

Close Examination:

  • (Coates, 2015, p. 11) ➡  The author's name, as well as the year of publication, was not mentioned in the sentence and is included in the citation. In this format, the author's name is followed by a comma, then the year, which is followed by another comma, and the page number. 

 

In-text Citation Basic Example #4:

Coates (2015) compares the American Dream to a warm bed made of Black bodies for the comfort of a predominantly white society (p. 11).

Close Examination:

  • This example does not require quotation marks as it is paraphrasing an idea in the text.
APA Reference List

American Psychological Association (APA)

Reference List

All written works adhering to APA style must have a Reference List at the end of the text and should list all sources cited. Below is a list of basic rules to follow when drafting a Reference List:

  • Appears on a separate page at the end of the text
  • The page should be titled: Reference List (centered and without italics)
  • Margins, header, and page number should remain the same or correspond to the rest of the formatted text
  • Entries should be listed alphabetically
  • Use hanging indents. Indent the second and following lines of citations by 0.5 inches (1,27 cm)
  • Author names appear with the last name first followed by a comma (,) then the first initial of the name. If the author lists their middle name, or middle initial it appears last (e.g. Morrison, T. / Levy, D. M.)
  • If the list contains multiple works authored by the same person, list the sources in chronological order within the larger alphabetical order
  • When referring to source titles (articles, books, chapters, etc.) only capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and subtitle, as well as any proper nouns

Reference List Formats

Below is a general and limited collection of how specific sources should appear on the Reference List. For more specific information see: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). It is important to pay attention to detail and follow the examples precisely to correctly cite sources.


Books

  • One author:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name. 
      • Coates, T. (2015). Between the world and me. Random House. 
  • More than one author:
    • Last Name, X. Y., Last Name, X. Y., & Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name.
    • Note: As of the 7th edition, it is advised to list the last name and first/middle initials for all authors (up to 20), and separate the authors with a comma. Before listing the last author's name use an ampersand (&) to separate it from the previous.
  • Edited book, no author:
    • Editor Last Name, X. Y. (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. Publisher Name.  
  • Edited book with an author(s):
    • Author Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter for fist word of subtitle. (X. Editor Last Name, Ed.). Publisher Name. 
    • Note: The editor(s) should be listed by the initial of their first name followed by their full last name and "Ed." to indicate they are the editor(s).
  • Article or chapter in an edited book:
    • Author Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In X. Y. Last Name of Editor & X. Y. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter for first work of subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI (if available)
    • Note: The citation must include the first and last page of the original source appears on separated by a hyphen "-" without spaces (e.g. 66-80).

Periodicals

Periodicals refers to scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers.

  • Newspaper article: 
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year and month of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page Number.
      • Winfrey, L. (1991, July). Courtroom network banks on real-life drama. Pittsburgh Press, C10.
  • Review article:
    • Last Name of Reviewer, X. Y. (Year of review publication). Title of review [Review of the book/article Title of book/article: Capital letter for first word of subtitle,  by X. Y. Author(s) Name of reviewed text]. Title of publication of review, Page Number(s). 
  • Article in scholarly journal:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication), Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. 
      • Note: As of the 7th edition, it is advised to list a DOI if available, even if using a print source. The DOI should appear after the listed page numbers (e.g. 44-60. DOI.). 

 

Online Sources

Note: Do not include hyperlinks in the Reference List unless otherwise specified.

  • Ebook:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter for first word of subtitle. (ed.). Publication. DOI/URL 
      • Jackson, L. M. (2019) The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. http:// doi.org/ 10.1037/0000168-000 
    • Note: Not include publisher location. If there is a DOI include it in the reference, do include a URL if there is no DOI available.
  • News article online:
    • Last Name, X. Y. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL
      • Fister, B. (2021, February 18). The librarian war against QAnon. The Atlantic. theatlantic.com/education/archive/2021/02/how-librarians-can-fight-qanon/618047/ 
  • Page on a web site
    • Organization or Group Name (Year, Month Date/Yeas of publication). Title of page. Site name. URL
      • Anglistik, Amerikanistik, und Anglophone Kulturen (n.d.). The Writing Center. Universität des Saarland. uni-saarland.de/fachrichtung/anglistik/writing-center.html
    • Note: List author(s) name if one is available. If there is not clear organization or group that authored the site, list the title of the page followed by the date. Omit the site name if it is the same as the title of the page. If the day and month are not shown, list the year. If there is not date shown list "(n.d.).". As of the 7th edition, it is no longer advised to add "Retrieved from" before the URL or DOI in some cases.
  • Tweet:
    • Last Name, X. Y. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post[Tweet]. Site Name. URL
      • Anglistik (Uni Saar) [@ang_sar]. (2020, September 29). Teachers' Day 2020 has kicked off! So far so good. Welcome to our virtual event![Tweet]. Twitter. twitter.com/ang_saar/status/1310945301159718914
    • Note: Indicate if Tweet contains additional media or links in brackets after the content description. Include or replicate emojis if possible.
  • Online videos, movies, and television:
    • Last Name, X. Y. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Platform/Service. URL
    • Note: Uploader is considered the author. Omit [Username] if the author name is the same.

Movies, Television Shows, & Other Media

  • Movie/Film:
    • Director Last Name, X. Y. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in original language [Title translated] [Film]. Production company.
      • Barry, J. (Director). (2016). Moonlight [Film]. A24.
  • Television episode:
    • Writer Last Name, X. Y. (Writer), & Director Last Name, X. Y. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In X. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s).
      • Lieberstein, P. (Writer), & Blitz, J. (Director). (2009, February 1). Stress relief (Season 5, Episode 14/15) [TV series episode]. In B. Silverman, G. Daniels, R. Gervais, S. Merchant, H. Klein, K. Kwapis, P. Lieberstein, B. Novak, B. Forrester, & D. Sterling (Executive Producers), The office. Deedle-Dee Productions and NBC Universal Television Distribution.
  • Television series:
    • Executive Producer(s), X. Y. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s).
  • Podcast:
    • Executive Producer, X. Y. (Executive Producer). (Range of publication). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Production company. URL
Avoiding Biased Language

Bias Free Language & Maintaining Credibility

When talking about bias-free language it often descends quickly into politics. It is important to focus on maintaining credibility with a wide readership; do keep in mine that bias language that is not central to the meaning of a text often irritates readers and weakens the work’s credibility. This section has been shortened and taken from the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. For the whole chapter see 5.251 "Bias-Free Langauge" 

1. Gender bias

  • Many readers find it unacceptable to use the generic masculine pronoun he when referring to no particular person.
  • Other readers find it unacceptable to use nontraditional gimmicks to avoid the generic masculine (e.g. he/she).
  • Either approach sacrifices credibility among some readers.

2. Other biases

  • The same occurs when talking about race, ethnicity, disability, religion, sexual orientation, transgender status, as well as birth or family status.
  • Careful writers avoid bias language that might be distracting or offensive unless it is central to the meaning of their writing.

3. The editor’s responsibility

  • Careful editors point out to the author any language that appears bias and suggest alternative. They ensure that any biased language is only being retained by choice.
  • Chicago editors do not have a list of words that are considered unacceptable.
  • In order to have the readers focus on the ideas and not the political subtext, writers need to use a style that does not lead to this issue, that no person could call sexist but that also does not contort to be nonsexist.

4. Techniques to achieve gender neutrality

  • To achieve gender neutrality it is often necessary to reword or rephrase. There are several methods that can be used for this. No method will work for every writer or context. Authors must find a combination of methods that works best for their context.

⇨1. Omit the pronoun: Sometimes it is possible to omit a pronoun as it is not necessary in every context.

  • The user should choose a password that he can remember well. vs. Users should choose a password that they can remember well.

​​​​⇨2. Repeat the pronoun: If a noun and its pronoun are separated by many words, try repeating the pronoun. Make sure not to overuse this and do not repeat a noun more that twice in a sentence as it might irritate the readers.

  • A student should give credit when using secondary sources, because his credibility could otherwise suffer. vs. A student should give credit when using secondary sources, because the student’s credibility could otherwise suffer.

⇨3. Use a plural antecedent: Using plural forms eliminates the need for singular pronouns that refer to a specific gender. Be careful when using this method as it might slightly change the meaning of a sentence.

  • A student should work by himself during this part of the lesson. vs. Students should work by themselves during this part of the lesson.

⇨4. Use an article instead of a pronoun: Replacing a singular person pronoun with a definite or indefinite article eliminates the gender reference and often does not change the meaning of a sentence.

  • A student must not use his phone while completing his test. vs. A student must not use a phone while completing a test.

⇨5. Use the relative pronoun who: This might cause a need for revision of the sentence and usually works best when it replaces a personal pronoun that follows if.

  • The law says that if somebody steals, he will be arrested. vs. The law says those who steal will be arrested.

⇨6. Use the imperative mood: The imperative eliminates the need for an explicit pronoun. It can be used in some contexts and addresses the target audience more forcefully.

  • A visitor must turn off his phone when entering the theatre. vs. Turnoff your phone when entering the theatre.

⇨7. In moderation, use he or she: This should mostly be used when no other technique is satisfactory.  Do not repeat the pronouns in the same sentence, revise the sentence instead.

  • In some texts the author is telling a story he has experienced in his own life. vs. Sometimes the author is telling a story he or she has experienced on his/her own.

⇨8. Revise the sentence: If no other technique can be applied, rewrite the sentence so no personal pronouns are needed anymore.

  • If a girl or boy does not wear his or her school uniform, he or she will be sent home vs. If a student does not wear their school uniform, that student will be sent home.

5. Gender neutral singular pronouns

Note: Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) frequently uses sex and gender as interchangable in this section throughout the 17th edition. The Writing Center's webpage does make a distiction, and has done so below. If you would like to consult the CMOS diretly, the link can be found in our section "Citation Overview". 

  • CMOS maintains that the only neutral third person singular pronoun is it, which does not refer to humans. Artifices like s/he or(wo)man appear clumsy and raise credibility problems among the readers.
  • Using anybody or someone does not always satisfy the need for a gender neutral alternative.
  • Using plural forms such as they and their is very popular in informal language.
  • CMOS states that there is no such pronoun that covers all needs as most people identify themselves with different pronouns. The writer must decide based on context.

6. Be aware of gender-specific suffixes

  • In American English, many writers eliminate sex-specific suffixes.
  • Feminine suffixes such as -ess and -ette can easily be replaced with suffix-free forms (e.g. authoress -> author; testatrix -> testator).
  • Compounds with -man can be problematic as the word person rarely functions the same way as it might change the connotation slightly (e.g. chairman -> chairperson). However for some words, the use of person is very common (e.g. salesperson).
  • Some words in the English language include alternatives that are commonly used (e.g. police officer, firefighter, mail carrier).

7. Necessary gender specific language

  • Not every context requires the use of gender-neutral terms. When writing about something that clearly concerns only one sex (e.g. a sorority or men’s golf championship) gender neutral language may lead to confusion. In these contexts it is usually sufficient to use one pronoun.

8. Gender-specific labels as adjectives

  • When gender is relevant, the noun woman may be used as a modifier in some contexts (e.g. woman judge). In isolated contexts this may strike some readers.
  • When parallel reference to both genders is requires, the adjectives male and female can be used (e.g. 43male and 36 female officers).

9. Avoid other biased language

  • Emphasize the person, not a characteristic (e.g. a Catholic man instead of a Catholic).
  • Avoid irrelevant references to personal characteristics such as gender, sex, race, ethnicity, disability, age, religion, sexual orientation, transgender status, or social standing.
  • When a characteristic is relevant to the context, use care when mentioning it.

 

Chicago Footnote Basics

Chicago Manual of Style

Basics of Chicago Manual of Style 

The basic guide below will cover the Notes Bibliography system, which is numbered footnotes in texts to denote shorted citations, as well as additive information in some cases, for the reader(s). This style corresponds to a Bibliography page that appears at the end of the a written work. For more information on the Author Date system see: The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) or click here.


What Requires a Footnote?

  • Summaries: If the author summarizes the main ideas of source material(s).
  • Paraphrasing: If the author restates, shortly, specific points or ideas from source material(s).
  • Quotations: If the author uses the exact language of the source material(s). (Note: Less than five lines is considered a short quote. Five or more lines is considered a block quote. See: The Chicago Manual of Style). 
  • Facts or figures: If the author uses numerical information, that is not well-known, from the source material(s). 

Footnotes in Written Works

To signal that a source was used, the should insert a superscript number directing the reader to a corresponding number at the bottom of the page (in the footer section), which is followed by the source material information. Superscript numbers should be placed close to the information that should be cited, and normally appear at the end of a sentence on the right side of the period/full-stop, the quotation mark, and closing parenthesis. Generally, superscript notation are found under "Insert" → "Footnotes" in most word processing software, their options are often pre-set, with standard formatting, and must be selected first to be inserted into the text. It may be necessary to change pre-set options to match formatting requirements.

Footnotes not only contain the source material information, they can also have external related materials, aside information to enhance the main text, or useful information about a particular source.


 


Basic Footnote Example #1:

Ta-Neheisi Coates compares the American Dream to a soft blanket ushing in a type of unattainable escapism as "the Dream rests on our back, the bedding made from our bodies."1

____________________________________________________________

1. Ta-Neheisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Random House, 2015), 11.

Close Examination:

Quote: 

  • Ta-Neheisi Coates ➡ Author's last name should appear in full at first mention in the body of the text, after first mention, the author can be referred to by their last name.
  • ...our bodies."1 ➡ The period/full-stop is inside the quote, mirroring the original text, and the superscript appears outside of the closing quotation mark. The superscript is 1 (one) indicating it is the first footnote to appear in the text. Footnotes should appear in numerical order.  

Footnote:

  • 1. Ta-Neheisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Random House, 2015), 11. ➡ This is the footnote that should appear at the footer of the page.
  • 1. ➡ The number in the footnote should correspond to the number in the superscript.
  • (New York: Random House, 2015), 11. ➡ The publisher name, location and date should appear inside parenthesis and separated by a comma. Since this citation is regarding a quote, the page number should appear outside of the parenthesis preceded by a comma and followed by a period/full-stop.

 

Basic Footnote Example #2:

    Coates compares the American Dream to a warm bed made of Black bodies for the comfort of a predominantly white society.3

    ____________________________________________________________

    3. Coates, Between the World, 11.

    Close Examination:

    Paraphrase:

    • Coates  ➡ The author is referred to by their last name, which indicates their full name has been previously mentioned.
    • society.3  ➡ The superscript appears to the right of the period/full-stop to indicate the source material referenced precedes it.

    Footnote:   

    • 3. Coates, Between the World, 11. This is a shortened footnote indicating the source has been cited earlier in the text. It should appear at the footer of the page. The number in the footnote should correspond to the number in the superscript. 
    • Coates, Between the World, ➡ Since this is a shortened note, only the author's last name should appear. The shortened title should contain up to four distinct words from the full title. 
    • , 11 ➡ The publisher name, location and date can be omitted. Do include the page number(s).  

     

    Basic Footnote Example #3:

    Coates begins with the premise "the Dream rests on our backs, the bedding made from our bodies" and the warm bed of the American Dream is fashioned for white America.4

    ____________________________________________________________

    4. Coates, 11.

    Close Examination:

     Quote:

    • America.4 ➡  In this case, the superscript appears at the end of the sentence because the sentence is quoting and paraphrasing the author's original idea. 

    Footnote:

    • 4. Coates, 11. This is a shortened footnote indicating that the exact source precedes it. This should appear at the footer of the page.
      • Note: As of the 17th edition, the use of ibid is discouraged in favor of shortened citations.
    • Coates, 11. ➡ This shortened citation indicates a repetition of sources and does not require the title or publication information. 
    Chicago Footnotes & Bibliography

    Chicago Manual of Style

    Bibliography

    Written works adhearing to The Chicago Manual of Style do not always have a Bibliography at the end of the text. Be aware of what is expeted and/or appropriate for your writing. Below is a list of basic rules to follow when drafting a Bibliography:

    • Appears on a seperate page at the end of the main text
    • The page should be titled: Bibliography (centered and without italics)
    • Margins, headers, and page number should remain the same or correspond to the rest of the formatted text
    • Entries are single spaced
    • Entries should be listed alphabetically
    • Use hanging indents. Indent the second and following lines of citations by 0.5 inches (1,27 cm)
    • Author names appear with the last name first followed by a comma (,) then the first name. If the author lists their middle name, or middle initial, it appears last (e.g. Morrison, Toni / Levy, David M.) 

    Bibliography Formats

    Below is a general and limited collection of how specific sources should appear on the Bibliography (B:), as well as how specific sources should appear in footnotes (N:). For more specific information see: The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). It is important to pay attention to detail and follow the examples precisely to correctly cite sources.


    Books

    • One author:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
        • Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. New York: Random House, 2015.
      • N: 1. Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Random House, 2015), 11.
    • More than one author:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
      • N: 2. First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s).
      • Note: Authors should be listed in the order they appear on the publication. In the footnote, for works with four or more authors, include only the first author's name followed by "et al.," In the Bibliography, for works with ten or more authors, list the first seven followed by "et al.,"
    • Unknown author:
      • B:Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
      • N: 3. Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s).
    • Chapter from single-authored book:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, Pages chapter appears on. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. 
      • N: 4. First Name Last Name, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s).
    • Chapter/contrabution from an edited collection:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by First and Last Name, Pages chapter appears on. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publisher. 
      • N: 5. First Name Last Name, "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. First and Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s).

    Periodicals:

    Periodicals refers to scholarly journals, magazines, and newspapers.

    • Newspaper article:
      • B: Last Name First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper (Location of Publication), Month Day Year.
        • Winfrey, Lee. "Courtroom Network Banks on Real-life Drama." Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, PA), Jul. 6 1991.
      • N: 6. First Name and Last Name, "Title of Article," Title of Newspaper (Location of Publication), Month Day Year.
        • Lee Winfrey, "Courtroom Network Banks on Real-life Drama," Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, PA), Jul. 6 1991.
      • Note: Newspaper articles are more often cited in the footnotes and not in the bibliography. If the title of the newspaper begins with "The" omit it. For not well-known US-American newspapers, the city name should be visible along with the state abbrviation in the parentheses. News services are capitalized, not italicized (e.g. Associated Press)
    • Book review:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Review of Title of Book Under Review, by Author First and Last Name. Periodical, Month Day, Year. 
      • N: 7. First Name and Last Name, " Title of Review," review of Title of Book Under Review, by Author First and Last Name, Periodical, Month Day, Year.
    • Article in scholarly journal:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Periodical volume number, issue number (Publication Date): Page Numbers 
        • Hollinger, David A. "After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Protestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity." The Journals of American History  98 no. 1 (2011): 22–48.
      • N: 8. First Name Last Name, "Title of Article," Periodical volume number, issue number (Publication Date): Page Number(s).
        • 8. Hollinger, David A. "After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Ecumenical Proestantism and the Modern American Encounter with Diversity," The Journals of American History 98 no. 1 (2011): 23.
      • Note: Volume does not need to be abbrviated, simply indicate the number. Issue number is abbreviated as: no. If given, denote the month and year of publication. Use an En dash to show page range.

    Online Sources

    Note: Do not include hyperlinks in the Bibliography unless otherwise specified.

    • Electronic book:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City, State: Publisher, Year. URL/DOI/Database.
      • N: 9. First Name LAst Name, TItle of Book. (City, State: Publisher, Year), Page Number(s), URL/DOI/Database.
      • Note: If the electronic book does not have fixed page numbers, include another location marker (i.e. chapter).
    • Jounal article with DOI:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journals/Periodical volume number, issues number (Date of Publication): Pages Number(s). DOI
      • N: 10. First Name Last Name, "TItle of Article," Title of Journals/Periodical volume number, issue number (Date of Publication): Page Number(s), DOI
    • Webpage with orginization as atuhor:
      • B: Orginization or Owner of Whole Website. "Webpage TItle." Website title or Publisher. Last Modified/Accessed/Updated date. URL. 
      •  N: 11. Orginization of Owner of Whole Website, "Webpage Title," Title of Website or Publisher, Last Modified/Accessed/Updated date, URL.
    • Streaming Video:
      • B: Last Name, First Name. Title of Video. Streaming/Platform Service, Year of Release, URL.
      • N: 12. First Name Last Name, Title of Video. Streaming/Platform Service, Year of Release, URL.
      • Note: The name should be the director, creator, actor etc. relevant to the citation. The name should follow their title (i.e. director) then a comma. If a timestamp is relevant, add after the release date surrounded by a comma in a footnote and periods/full-stops for the bibliography. If the video is produced by a production company, add company name after the timestamp or release date. The production company name should be italicized and surrounded by commas in footnotes or periods/full-stops in the bibliography. 

    Movies, Television Shows, & Other Media

    • Movie/Film
      • B: Last Name, First Name, title/role. Movie Title. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year. Medium.
        • Jenkins, Barry, director. Moonlight. 2016; New York: A24, 2017. Apple TV.
      • N: 13. Movie Title, directed by first name last name (Year of Release; City: Studio/Distributor, Video Release Year), Medium.
        • 13. Moonlight, directed by Barry Jenkins. 2016; New York: A24, 2017) Apple TV.
    • Television episodes:
      • B: Last Name, First Name, writer. Title of Show. Season Number, Episode Number, "Title of Episode." Directed by First Name Last Name, featuring (if relavent). Aired Month Day, Year, original airing information. Studio/Distributor, Year Accessed, Medium. 
      • N: 14. Title of Show, season number, episode number, "TItle of Episode," directed by First Name Last Name, written by First Name Last Name, featuring (if relevant), aired Month Day, Year, original airing information, Studio/Distributor, Year Accessed, Medium.
    • Podcast:
      • B: Last Name, First Name of Podcast host and First Name Last Name of Guest (if relevant). "TItle of Episode." Produced by orginization Name. Podcast Series Title. Date Aired. Podcast, MP# audio, time lenght. Accessed date. URL. 
      • N: 15. Podcast host First Name Last Name and First Name Last Name of guest (if relevant), "Title of Podcast," date, in Title of Podcast Series, produced by orginization, podcast, MP3 audio, time lenght, accessed date, URL.
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    Email Etiquette

    Before Writing

    Before you start writing an email, be sure to think about the details, especially in professional or university contexts. You want to leave a good impression so recipient will be more inclined to answer you.

    Consider the following:

    • Avoid using your personal email account.
      • If you have an email that appears unprofessional (e.g., fcbayernforever23@example.com), avoid using it in professional settings
    • Use your student email. This makes it easier for university faculty to identify you.
    • Ask yourself if you need to provide contextual informaton (e.g., course title, semester, position, or job title). 
    • Think about the content of your email before pressing "Send". Are you seeking additional information or providing informaton? Can you look up this information yourself? (e.g., info could be found in the syllabus, on Teams, etc.) 

     

    While Writing

    Now that you have started writing, detials still matter! 

    Consider the following:

    • Choose a meaningful subject line and make sure your choice indicates the reason for your email.
      •  (e.g. “Appointment” or “Question about the term paper” NOT "July 3rd at 14:00" or "I need an extension").
    • Always come up with a new subject line when addressing a new topic.
    • Phrase your email in a clear and direct way and try to keep it as brief or to the point as possible.
    • Do use an acceptable sign-off (e.g.,  Sincerely, Best, [wishes,] Regards, etc.) and include a
      brief signature below.
    • If you are writing to an instructor or professor, include your course and your matriculation number. Since they teach many classes, they might now know who you are or what class you are refering to. It also may be necessary a to find you in their system using this information.
    After Writing

    You guessed it, the devil is in the detials! Look over what you wrote. 

    Remeber to always:  Re-read your email before you hit "Send"! Check spelling and grammar, but also make sure your email clearly communicates why you wrote it.

    A Few Tips on Formal Guidelines

    Writing an email is not the same as asking a question in person or writing a comment on a message board. There are set phrases and formalities you need to use and be aware of.

    • Pay attention to the recipient's name or title, including spelling:
      • These may include Professor, Dr., Mr., or Ms.
      • Often, it is sufficient to use the highest title (e.g., Professor) if the recipient has multiple titles.
    •  Avoid addressing someone you are not familiar with by their first name (unless you have been told to do so).
      • How to know when to use someone’s first or last name:
        • Usually, if someone uses their first and last name in the sign-off, the relationship is more formal. Address them by their title and last name.
        • If someone is only signing off with their first name, they are probably inviting you to call them by their first name. If you are unsure, you can begin your email with “Dear Clive (if I may),”.
    • Use a capatalize the first letter to begin of an email (unlike in German!).
    • Keep punctuation clear, spelling sound, and avoid obscure abbreviations. (e.g., "TBH I am really sick and it's NAGI for me 2 come 2 class, THX").
    • Use short paragraphs to separate your points. Emails with a meaningful structure are easier to follow.
    Do's and don'ts

    Don't write: “I hereby send you my assignment.”
    Write this instead: “My assignment is attached to this email.”

    Don't write: “Herewith I send you my essay.”
    Write this instead: “I have attached my assignment below.”

    Don't write: “Here is my essay.”
    Write this instead: “You can find my assignment attached to this email.”

    Don't write: “Monday, 2pm April 4th” in your subject line                                                                                                                          Write this Instead:  “Appointment”

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    Additional Writing Resources at Saarland University

    Saarland University offers a verity of writing support and instruction in both German and French. To find the right resource for you click here.